This manuscript has been prepared by a commission under The Research Centre for Applied Ethics. The commission members are: Dr. Ayse Gedik, Dr Güzin Binatli, Ms. Defne Akinci and Ms. Aylin Atakent
1. DEFINITION OF PLAGIARISM:
Plagiarism is defined by many sources [1-3, 41, 68 and WEBSITES given below] as follows:
"PLAGIARISM is using, presenting or submission of someone else's ideas or phrasing without clearly acknowledging the source of that information (that is without any citation or credits) and representing those ideas or phrasing as our own, either on purpose or through carelessness."
2. TYPES OF PLAGIARISM: [28, 34, 64, 70, 71, 74]
* "Plagiarism can take several forms. The most obvious form is a word-to-word copying of someone else's work, in whole or in part, without acknowledgment, whether that work be a magazine article, a portion of a book, a newspaper piece, another student's essay, or any other composition not your own."
* "A second form of plagiarism is the acknowledged paraphrasing of the structure and language of another's person's work, changing a few words of another's composition, omitting a few sentences or changing the order. If such borrowing or paraphrase is ever necessary, the source must be scrupulously indicated by footnotes."
* "Still another form of plagiarism consists of writing a paper based solely on the ideas of another. Even though the language is not the same, if thinking is clearly not your own, then you have committed plagiarism."
3. SAMPLES FOR ACTS OF PLAGIARISM [54,57,58,60]:
In this section, you will see some examples of plagiarism, the reasons why they are seen as plagiarism and a possible way of getting rid of plagiarism. We created these samples based on the common ways of plagiarism that we often see in student papers.
1. Lifting whole parts:
Original in the source:
Two fundamentally different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundemental models).
How it looks in student paper:
There are two fundamentally different models of anomalous mental phenomena developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundemental models). These two models play a role in differentiating the people's bahaviour patterns.
Verdict: Although one or two words have been changed, this is clearly plagiarism as the whole paragraph have been lifted but no reference can be seen. The last sentence seems to be the student's words, but as there is no sign of citation, the whole part is considered plagiarism.
Sample Correct version:
"Two fundamentally different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundemental models)"(May, Utts & Spottiswoode, 1995: 197). These two models play a role in differentiating the people's bahaviour patterns.
2. Lifting small parts and scaterring them:
Original in the source:
Two fundamentally different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundamental models).
How it looks in the student paper:
Two different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: phenomenological model and fundamental models. These two models play a role in differentiating the people's bahaviour patterns.
Verdict: We can see that the student has been selective in using the information in the original passage, however, s/he has taken the material as it is without putting quotation marks or reference. This is another way of plagiarism.
Sample correct version:
May, et al. (1995) state that two models have been formed for anomalous mental phenomena, which are "phenomenological model" and "fundamental model". These two models play a role in differentiating the people's bahaviour patterns.
3. Showing others' opinion as your own:
Original in the source :
Novelist E. M. Forster famously criticized Dickens's characters as "flat," lamenting that they seem to lack the depth and complexity that make literary characters realistic and believable. Charles Darnay and Lucie Manette certainly fit this description. A man of honor, respect, and courage, Darnay conforms to the archetype of the hero but never exhibits the kind of inner struggle that Carton and Doctor Manette undergo. His opposition to the Marquis's snobbish and cruel aristocratic values is admirable, but, ultimately, his virtue proves too uniform, and he fails to exert any compelling force on the imagination.
How it looks in the student paper:
Dickens's characters in this novel are flat and they lack the depth and complexity that make literary characters realistic and believable. Charles Darney and Lucie Manette are perfect examples for this description. The character Darney, is depicted as honorable, respectful and couragous, and he conforms to aspects of a hero. However, according to Jackson (2003), he does not show "the kind of inner struggle that Carton and Doctor Manette undergo".
Verdict: The student has taken two sentences which have been taken from another source (here E. M. Forster). In the student's paper, these two sentences look as if they are the student's own comments, which means plagiarism. The student has to cite Forster's name to show the owner of the comments, and state that s/he has found these comments in Jackson's paper.
Sample correct version:
E.M. Forster comments that the people shown in the novel are "flat" and they do not have "the depth and complexity that make literary characters realistic and believable" (cited in Jackson, 2003). Another critic, Jackson reasons that Darney looks as "honorable, respectful and couragous", so he fits the definition of a "hero". On the other hand, he does not suffer from the psychological difficulty as Carton and Doctor Manette experience (Jackson, 2003). As a result, the readers are faced with a heroic but conforming Darney as opposed to Carton and Manette in Dickens's novel.
Links to see other samples of plagiarism:
4. STRATEGIES FOR DETECTING PLAGIARISM [9,11,39,42,43,46,49,61,63,65,66]
“Aşırma” ile yazilan ödevlerin belirli ortak özellikleri vardir. En sik görülenler ise sunlardir:
" Mixed citation styles: As most students resort to "patchwork" plagiarism (also known as cut-and-paste plagiarism), their papers display a number of citation styles used together. For example, if you see the APA style used together with Chicago, you may want to further investigate the paper for plagiarism.
" Lack of citations: This may show that the student has taken the information from a general knowledge source such as an encyclopedia, or it may show that the student is unaware of the need for citing sources, in which case he is inevitably plagiarising.
" Dated sources: No reference to up-to-date sources in a paper may be another indicator of plagiarism. Most students plagiarise from dated books thinking they have already been "forgotten".
Shifts in language and/or style: Most students who plagiarise are not aware of the fact that their papers should display consistent language and style. Therefore, they cut and paste paragraphs from different sources, not paying attention to their language or style. If you are reading a paper that shifts noticeably between formal and informal language, simple and complex grammar, plain and remarkable style, or if you are reading a paper that has noticeably weaker parts than the rest of it in general, you may be facing a case of plagiarism.
If you see these signs in a paper, you may want to:
a) search for the original source in the library or online, or
b) ask the student to "validate" his writing.
You can do this by asking the student to explain why he has used a combination of different citation styles or what was remarkable about the dated source he has referred to (so that he preferred it over a more up-to-date source) or you may ask him what he means by a specifically high level word.
5. STRATEGIES FOR PREVENTING PLAGIARISM[8,25,27,38,69]
1. Educate your students about plagiarism: Some students plagiarise willingly; however, others plagiarise without even being aware. Educating your students about plagiarism and informing them about its many forms may help those students in the latter group. They should be aware that ALL of the following are different forms of plagiarism and thus are NOT acceptable:
a) Copying a printed or online source without proper citation
b) Patchworking (cutting and pasting) from different sources without proper citation
c) Quoting less than all the words copied
d) Faking a citation (e.g. making up statistics, etc.)
e) Changing the wording of a source but using ideas from it without proper citation
2. Provide a list of specific topics for your assignments: If you ask the students to choose from a list of narrowed topics, you will lower the risk of plagiarism. Changing topics from semester to semester will also be helpful.
3. Make the assignment clear: Be clear and specific about your expectations and inform the students about them. If the students know that they must consult "at least two printed books, two Internet sources, and one journal" and that these should all be published within the last 5 years, they will not be able to download a paper from the Internet and submit it to you because it is very unlikely that they will find a paper that fulfills all of your expectations. Providing the students with a handout that explains your expectations clearly will be helpful.
4. Set a series of dates for "updating": This is a very useful strategy against plagiarism. If you ask your students to be ready to discuss issues about their papers on specific days throughout the term, you will able to watch their improvement. You can set dates according to the various steps of the writing process. For example, after identifying the topic/problem, locating and reading preliminary bibliography, writing the outline and the rough draft, etc. In this way, students will have to walk through the process of writing, and they will not have to copy a source the day before your assignment is due.
5. Require an oral presentation or a reflection essay about the paper: You may ask the students to make a brief presentation about their papers at the end of the term or ask them to write a short reflection essay on the day you collect their papers. In this way, students will see that they need to be familiar with their topics and papers.
6. Make the penalties clear: At the time you assign the paper, let the students know what penalties you have for plagiarism. Telling them: "Plagiarism will result with an F on your paper/in my course" will possibly deter most students who may otherwise contemplate cheating.
6. SUGGESTIONS FOR AVOIDING PLAGIARISM FOR STUDENTS 
6.1 Tips that will help you stay away from plagiarism in your academic work:
Consult your instructor/supervisor: Before and while conducting your research and using sources, ask your instructor or supervisor(s) you are working with for guidance. Not only will they read and grade your work, but they also are experienced in using sources for academic writing.
Start early: Don't leave your paper to the last minute. You will need time to read the materials, think about their role in your paper, and use the necessary citing rules to combine their ideas with yours.
When reading, make notes and references all the time: While doing your research before you start writing about it, keep notes either in a notebook or on computer. While taking notes out of a source, note down the reference next to each (the name of the book/article, the name of the author(s), the year of publication, the page number). Otherwise, it is too easy to lose the original source of information in your notes or to confuse someone else's idea with yours.
Always make a reference when you take information from a source: Whether you take out a single word or a full paragraph from a source, you must put quotation marks(".......") and state where you took this information from. The length or shortness of the borrowed material does not change the fact that you still have to cite it.
Always make a reference when you paraphrase or summarise: When you change the author's words to paraphrase or summarise the information in the source, you do not need to make quotation marks. However, you still need to make a reference to the name of the author. Otherwise, it will look as if they are your own ideas orignally, which will mean plagiarism.
Cite any type of sourse you use: You must make a reference and cite the source and the author even when you have used an Internet source, a discussion forum on the Internet, an informal seminar hand-out etc. You cannot take ideas from these without citing.
6.2 Incorporating your ideas within your paper: A lot of students believe that if they cite and reference all the material they use, there will be not space left in the paper for their own ideas. Most often, there is either too many references on top of each other or too few references can be seen because of plagiarism. Here is what you should do:
1)Keep separate notes for your ideas and the ideas you take from sources.
2)When you start writing, state your idea or comment, and then use references to support, explain or exemplify your idea.
3)Make transitions or comments between references. For example, when you are listing the definition of a term by different authors, state the similarities or differences between them in your own words.
4)Make sure to read the sources with a critical eye. Find the relationships between the information in the sources and state them in your own words.
7. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Q1. Is plagiarism counted as cheating?
A1. Yes, since it involved trying to show something as your own, it is no different than cheating.
Q2. What happens if we read a few sources and write a summary of these few writers' opinions in our own words? We don't have to show reference, do we?
A2. Yes, you do. Even if you are only summarising their ideas and not directly taking them, you must give credit to the original owners of the information or ideas you are writing about.
Q3. What about the subject-notes and student help websites, can we use the material from there?
A3. Yes you can use the material from there as long as you show the source. If you do not show reference, then it will be counted as plagiarism.
Q4. Is it alright if I give the sources in the reference list (bibliography), but not in the text?
A4. It will not be enough. You need to mention the name of the authors that you are taking information from, in your writing. Otherwise, it won't be possible to understand which part is yours and which part has been taken from a source.
Q5. I have seen many books which do not have any references inside the text. Why can't WE do this?
A5. Those books may be encyclopaedias or common reference books in the market. They tend to be popular books with the purpose of giving general information to the public. Your work, however, involves scientific research and reporting. Your readers are researchers and academicians. You are reporting what you have found in your field. That is why, you need to show every piece of evidence you have used in your paper.
Q6. How can one understand that the information in a paper/thesis has been plagiarized?
A6. The instructors and lecturers at university are well aware of ways of plagiarism. Also, we should not forget that they have probably read nearly all the related material in the field. They are experienced readers of student papers, so they can distinguish between students' ideas and authors' ideas. There are types of free software on the Internet to detect plagiarism, too.
For all these reasons, it is not too difficult to see whether a part of a paper or the whole of it has been plagiarized, or not.
For other questions, see the following links:
1. American Association of University Professors (1989) “Statement on Plagiarism” AAAS-ABA National Conference of Lawyers and Scientists. (1988) Project on Scientific Fraud and Misconducts Report on Workshop (1-3). Washington: American Association Advancement for the Science.
2. Association of American Medical Colleges (1982) “The Maintenance of High Ethical Standards in the Conduct of Research”.
3. (1990) Framework for Industrial Policies and Procedures to Deal with Misconduct in Research (Revised Edition). Washington
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MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY (METU)
ETHICS CENTERS IN UNIVERSITES
WEBSITES ON PLAGIARISM
ACADEMIC WRITING CENTERS
REGULATIONS CONCERNING PLAGIARISM
TUBA (Turkish Academy of Sciences))
YÖK (Higher Education Board)